7 Habits of Highly Effective People

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7 Habits of Highly Effective PeopleStage of DependenceHabit 1:  Be ProactiveHabit 2:  Begin with the End in MindHabit 3:  Put First Things FirstStage of IndependenceIntroBook<img src="7habits-cover-k.jpg">Covey, Stephen R., The 7 Habits of Highl ...on amazonHabit 4:  Think Win/WinHabit 5:  Seek First to Understand, Then ...Habit 6:  SynergizeStage of InterdependenceHabit 7:  Sharpen the Saw
hide7 Habits of Highly Effective People
hideIntro
leafIn his #1 bestseller, Stephen R. Covey presented a framework for personal effectiveness. The following is a summary of the first part of his book, concluding with a list of the seven habits.
hideInside-Out: The Change Starts from Within
leafWhile working on his doctorate in the 1970's, Stephen R. Covey reviewed 200 years of literature on success. He noticed that since the 1920's, success writings have focused on solutions to specific problems. In some cases such tactical advice may have been effective, but only for immediate issues and not for the long-term, underlying ones. The success literature of the last half of the 20th century largely attributed success to personality traits, skills, techniques, maintaining a positive attitude, etc. This philosophy can be referred to as the Personality Ethic.
leafHowever, during the 150 years or so that preceded that period, the literature on success was more character oriented. It emphasized the deeper principles and foundations of success. This philosophy is known as the Character Ethic, under which success is attributed more to underlying characteristics such as integrity, courage, justice, patience, etc.
leafThe elements of the Character Ethic are primary traits while those of the Personality Ethic are secondary. While secondary traits may help one to play the game to succeed in some specific circumstances, for long-term success both are necessary. One's character is what is most visible in long-term relationships. Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, "What you are shouts so loudly in my ears I cannot hear what you say."
leafTo illustrate the difference between primary and secondary traits, Covey offers the following example. Suppose you are in Chicago and are using a map to find a particular destination in the city. You may have excellent secondary skills in map reading and navigation, but will never find your destination if you are using a map of Detroit. In this example, getting the right map is a necessary primary element before your secondary skills can be used effectively.
leafThe problem with relying on the Personality Ethic is that unless the basic underlying paradigms are right, simply changing outward behavior is not effective. We see the world based on our perspective, which can have a dramatic impact on the way we perceive things. For example, many experiments have been conducted in which two groups of people are shown two different drawings. One group is shown, for instance, a drawing of a young, beautiful woman and the other group is shown a drawing of an old, frail woman. After the initial exposure to the pictures, both groups are shown one picture of a more abstract drawing. This drawing actually contains the elements of both the young and the old woman. Almost invariably, everybody in the group that was first shown the young woman sees a young woman in the abstract drawing, and those who were shown the old woman see an old woman. Each group was convinced that it had objectively evaluated the drawing. The point is that we see things not as they are, but as we are conditioned to see them. Once we understand the importance of our past conditioning, we can experience a paradigm shift in the way we see things. To make large changes in our lives, we must work on the basic paradigms through which we see the world.
leafThe Character Ethic assumes that there are some absolute principles that exist in all human beings. Some examples of such principles are fairness, honesty, integrity, human dignity, quality, potential, and growth. Principles contrast with practices in that practices are for specific situations whereas principles have universal application.
leafThe Seven Habits of Highly Effective People presents an "inside-out" approach to effectiveness that is centered on principles and character. Inside-out means that the change starts within oneself. For many people, this approach represents a paradigm shift away from the Personality Ethic and toward the Character Ethic.
hideThe Seven Habits - An Overview
leafOur character is a collection of our habits, and habits have a powerful role in our lives. Habits consist of knowledge, skill, and desire. Knowledge allows us to know what to do, skill gives us the ability to know how to do it, and desire is the motivation to do it.
hideThe Seven Habits move us through the following stages:
hideStage of Dependence
leafthe paradigm under which we are born, relying upon others to take care of us
hideStage of Independence
leafthe paradigm under which we can make our own decisions and take care of ourselves
hideStage of Interdependence
leafthe paradigm under which we cooperate to achieve something that cannot be achieved independently
leafMuch of the success literature today tends to value independence, encouraging people to become liberated and do their own thing. The reality is that we are interdependent, and the independent model is not optimal for use in an interdependent environment that requires leaders and team players.
leafTo make the choice to become interdependent, one first must be independent, since dependent people have not yet developed the character for interdependence. Therefore, the first three habits focus on self-mastery, that is, achieving the private victories required to move from dependence to independence.
hideThe first three habits are:
leaf* Habit 1: Be Proactive
leaf* Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind
leaf* Habit 3: Put First Things First
hideHabits 4, 5, and 6 then address interdependence:
leaf* Habit 4: Think Win/Win
leaf* Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood
leaf* Habit 6: Synergize
leafFinally, the seventh habit is one of renewal and continual improvement, that is, of building one's personal production capability. To be effective, one must find the proper balance between actually producing and improving one's capability to produce. Covey illustrates this point with the fable of the goose and the golden egg.
leafIn the fable, a poor farmer's goose began laying a solid gold egg every day, and the farmer soon became rich. He also became greedy and figured that the goose must have many golden eggs within her. In order to obtain all of the eggs immediately, he killed the goose. Upon cutting it open he discovered that it was not full of golden eggs. The lesson is that if one attempts to maximize immediate production with no regard to the production capability, the capability will be lost. Effectiveness is a function of both production and the capacity to produce.
leafThe need for balance between production and production capability applies to physical, financial, and human assets. For example, in an organization the person in charge of a particular machine may increase the machine's immediate production by postponing scheduled maintenance. As a result of the increased output, this person may be rewarded with a promotion. However, the increased immediate output comes at the expense of future production since more maintenance will have to be performed on the machine later. The person who inherits the mess may even be blamed for the inevitable downtime and high maintenance expense.
leafCustomer loyalty also is an asset to which the production and production capability balance applies. A restaurant may have a reputation for serving great food, but the owner may decide to cut costs and lower the quality of the food. Immediately, profits will soar, but soon the restaurant's reputation will be tarnished, the customer's trust will be lost, and profits will decline.
leafThis does not mean that only production capacity is important. If one builds capacity but never uses it, there will be no production. There is a balance between building production capacity and actually producing. Finding the right tradeoff is central to one's effectiveness.
leafThe above has been an introduction and overview of the 7 Habits. The following introduces the first habit in Covey's framework.
hidebookmarkStage of Dependence
leafthe paradigm under which we are born, relying upon others to take care of us
hidefull-1Habit 1: Be Proactive
leafChange starts from within, and highly effective people make the decision to improve their lives through the things that they can influence rather than by simply reacting to external forces.
hidefull-2Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind
leafDevelop a principle-centered personal mission statement. Extend the mission statement into long-term goals based on personal principles.
hidefull-3Habit 3: Put First Things First
leafSpend time doing what fits into your personal mission, observing the proper balance between production and building production capacity. Identify the key roles that you take on in life, and make time for each of them.
hideforwardStage of Independence
leafthe paradigm under which we can make our own decisions and take care of ourselves
hidefull-4Habit 4: Think Win/Win
leafSeek agreements and relationships that are mutually beneficial. In cases where a "win/win" deal cannot be achieved, accept the fact that agreeing to make "no deal" may be the best alternative. In developing an organizational culture, be sure to reward win/win behavior among employees and avoid inadvertantly rewarding win/lose behavior.
hidefull-5Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood
leafFirst seek to understand the other person, and only then try to be understood. Stephen Covey presents this habit as the most important principle of interpersonal relations. Effective listening is not simply echoing what the other person has said through the lens of one's own experience. Rather, it is putting oneself in the perspective of the other person, listening empathically for both feeling and meaning.
hidefull-6Habit 6: Synergize
leafThrough trustful communication, find ways to leverage individual differences to create a whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. Through mutual trust and understanding, one often can solve conflicts and find a better solution than would have been obtained through either person's own solution.
hideforwardStage of Interdependence
leafthe paradigm under which we cooperate to achieve something that cannot be achieved independently
hidefull-7Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw
leafTake time out from production to build production capacity through personal renewal of the physical, mental, social/emotional, and spiritual dimensions. Maintain a balance among these dimensions.
hideBook
leaf
leafCovey, Stephen R., The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People